中国医科大学学报

中国医科大学学报

中国医科大学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 110–115.doi: 10.12007/j.issn.0258-4646.2016.02.004

• 论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

沈阳市和平区中小学生视力不良状况及近视危险因素分析

郭雷1,董光辉2,韩屹1,张悦1,李明3,才娜4   

  1. 1 中国医科大学附属第一医院眼视光中心,沈阳110001;2 中国医科大学公共卫生学院统计学教研室,沈阳110122;3 沈阳市和平区中小学卫生保健所,沈阳110001;4 中国医科大学附属第一医院眼科,沈阳110001
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-29 出版日期:2016-02-27 发布日期:2016-01-21
  • 通讯作者: 才娜 E-mail:syguolei@126.com
  • 作者简介:郭雷(1971 -),男,副主任医师,硕士.
  • 基金资助:
    辽宁省社会发展攻关计划(2012225012)

Poor Vision and Myopia Risk Factor of Pupils in Heping District of Shenyang City

GUO Lei1,DONG Guang-hui2,HAN Yi1,ZHANG Yue1,LI Ming3,CAI Na4   

  1. 1 Optometric Center,The First Hospital,China Medical University,Shenyang 110001,China;2 Department of Statistics,School of Public Health,China Medical University,Shenyang 110122,China;3 Heping Health Center for Primary and Secondary School,Shenyang 110001,China;4 Department of Ophthalmology,The First Hospital,China Medical University,Shenyang110001,China
  • Received:2015-07-29 Online:2016-02-27 Published:2016-01-21

摘要: 目的 了解沈阳市和平区中小学生视力不良的状况,初步探讨可能引起或加重近视的危险因素,为近视防治方案的制定提供科学参考依据。方法 进行以学校为基础的横断面调查,对沈阳市和平区中小学生进行视力检查,统计视力不良情况及新发视力不良情况。同时对正常视力人群以及已经确诊并配戴近视眼镜的人群进行问卷调查。结果 沈阳市和平区中小学生视力不良的检出率由小学一年级至高中三年级分别为23.54%、28.73%、39.51%、48.21%、58.24%、65.16%、76.04%、80.90%、85.74%、82.66%、83.59%、88.34%;裸眼视力不良发病率随年龄增长而逐年上升,其中小学一年级的发病率最低,而高中三年级的发病率最高(P < 0.001),中小学生(不含小学一年级、初中一年级及高中一年级)新发视力不良的比例分别为19.18%、22.02%、24.91%、25.53%、26.80%、40.88%、42.32%、23.75%、30.72%,初中阶段比例最高,高中新发视力不良比例较初中下降(P < 0.001);问卷调查结果显示,近视家族史、住房类型、户外运动时间、睡眠时间、阅读距离、单次近距离阅读持续时间等方面近视眼与非近视眼人群有统计学差异(P < 0.05);在出生方式、同居人群、饮食习惯、是否使用护眼灯、业余活动类型等方面无统计学差异(P > 0.05)。结论 青少年近视的发生率随年龄增长而上升,新发视力不良比例较大的年龄阶段在9~16岁。近视家族史、睡眠时间少、阅读距离过近、单次近距离阅读时间长、户外运动时间少为近视风险因素。减少中小学生持续近距离用眼时间是防治近视的重要环节。

关键词: 中小学生, 视力, 近视

Abstract: Objective To investigate the poor vision status of pupils in Heping District,Shenyang,and to analyze the myopia risk factors,so as to provide a rational reference for myopia prevention. Methods The cross-sectional study was carried out in primary and middle schools. The visual acuity of the pupils was screened,and the status and incidence of poor vision were also recorded. At the same time,a survey was carried out among normal subjects and myopia individuals. Results The detection rates of pupils in Heping District from first grade of primary school to the final year in high school were 23.54%,28.73%,39.51%,48.21%,58.24%,65.16%,76.04%,80.90%,85.74%,82.66%,83.59%,and 82.66%,respectively,which exhibited an increasing trend year by year. The first grade of primary school had the lowest detection rate,while the final year in high school showed the highest one(P < 0.001). In addition,excluding the first grade in primary school,junior high school and senior high school,the new occurrence of poor vision among these pupils was 19.18%,22.02%,24.91%,25.53%,26.80%,40.88%,42.32%,23.75%,and 42.32%,respectively. Moreover,this new occurrence in junior high school was the maximal,and significantly higher than that in senior high school(P < 0.001). According to the questionnaire survey,the myopia and normal subjects showed significant differences among family history of myopia and residential environment. These myopia subjects have less outdoor sports time,fewer than eight hours for sleep,but more near-distance reading and duration for a single reading time(allP < 0.05). However,there was no obvious difference in other factors(P > 0.05),including the way of birth,family habit,diet,the eye protective lamp,and amateur exercise manners. Conclusion The incidence of juvenile myopia increased along with the age,and there was higher new occurrence of poor vision during 9 to 16 years old. Family history,less sleep,near-distance reading and long time reading,as well as less outdoor activities were regarded as risk factors for myopia. It is essential to reduce the time of near vision homework for the prevention and treatment of myopia.

Key words: primary and secondary school students, visual acuity, myopia

中图分类号: 

  • R778.1
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